Normas OSHA e ANSI

OSHA's Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry

Subpart D, Walking/Working Surfaces  

• Fixed Ladder, Ladder Safety Devices

1.910,27 (d) (5)

• Safety Requirements for Scaffolding, Boatswain's Chair

1.910,28 (j) (4)
Subpart I, Personal Fall Arrest Systems
Proposed
Subpart F, Powered Platforms and Building Maintenance
1.910,66
Subpart J, Permit - Required Confined Space
1.910,146
Subpart R, Special Industries
 

• Agricultural Operations

1.910,267

• Telecommunications

1.910,268

• Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution

1.910,269

OSHA's Safety and Health Regulations for Construction
Subpart E, Personal Protective Equipment  

• Safety Belts, Lifelines and Lanyards

1.926,104

• Safety Nets

1.926,105
Subpart L, Scaffolding
 

• Boatswain's Chair

1.926,451 (1)
Subpart M, Fall Protections
 

• Scope, Application and Definitions

1.926,500

• Duty to Have Fall Protection

1.926,501
• Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices
1.926,502
• Training Requirements
1.926,503
Subpart R, Steel Erection
 
• Fall Protection
1.926,760

OSHA's Safety and health Regulations for Marine Terminals & Longshoring
Marine Terminals
1917
Longshoring
1918

ANSI Standards
Construction and Demolition Operations: Requirements for Safety Belts, Harnesses, Lanyards &Lifelines for Construction and Demolition
A10.14-1991
Ladders - Fixed - Safety Requirements
A14.3-1992
Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces
Z117.1-1989
Safety Requirements for Personal Fall Arrest Systems, Subsystems and Components
Z359.1-1992

Safety Requirements for Personal Fall Arrest Systems, Subsystems and Components

(ANSI Z359.1-1992)
1,1 Scope- This standard establishes requirements for the performance, design, marking, qualification, instruction, training, inspection, use, maintenance and removal from service of connectors, full body harnesses, lanyards, energy absorbers, anchorage connectors, fall arresters, vertical lifelines, and self retracting lanyards comprising personal fall arrest systems for users within the capacity range of 130 to 310 lbs. (59 to 140 kg.).

1.2.1 This standard addresses only personal fall arrest systems (PFAS) incorporating full body harnesses. Whenever the term “system” is used in the standard if refers to a personal fall arrest system.

3.1.2 When subjected to tests contained in 4,2, a personal fall arrest system in which a full body harness is used shall produce a maximum arrest force (MAF) of not more than 1.800 pounds (8.0kN) and shall bring the fall to a complete stop with a deceleration distance of not more than 42 inches (1.067 mm). In suspension, after the fall is arrested, the angle at rest which the vertical center line of the test torso makes with the vertical shall not exceed 30 degrees.

3.2.1.4 Snaphooks and carabiners shall be self closing and self locking and shall be capable of being opened only by at least two consecutive deliberate actions.

3.2.2.4 The harness shall provide support for the body across the lower chest, over the shoulders and around the thighs when a tensile load is applied to the fall arrest attachment elements. The harness, when properly fitted and used, shall prevent fall-out. The fall arrest attachment shall be located at the back (dorsal) position.

3.2.4.7 When energy absorbers are dynamically tested in accordance with 4.3.5.2, the maximum arrest force shall not exceed 900 lbs. (4 kN).

3.2.8.7 Static Strength- When tested in accordance with 4.3.7.3, the SRL shall withstand a tensile load of 3.000 pounds (13,3 kN) statically applied directly to the point of SRL line connection to the SRL drum.

3.2.8.9. Dynamic Performance- When tested in accordance with 4.3.7.1, the SRL shall lock and remain locked until released. The arrest distance shall not exceed 54 inches (1.372 mm). Maximum arrest force shall not exceed 1.800 pounds (8kN).

5.1.2 The legibility and attachment of required markings shall endure for the life of the component, subsystem, or system being marked.

5.3.1 Instructions shall be provided to the user, printed in English, and affixed to the equipment at the time of shipment from the manufacturer.


Requirements for Safety Belts, Harnesses, Lanyards and Lifelines for Construction and Demolition Use.

(ANSI A10.14-1991)
1,1 Scope- This standard establishes performance criteria for the manufacture and use of body belts, harnesses, lanyards, lifelines, rope grabs and shock absorbers for construction and demolition.

4.3.3.8 Anchorages for vertical lifelines shall have anchorage strength of at least 5.000 pounds (22,2 kN)

6.1.1.1 Personal fall arrest systems shall be rigged so that an employee can neither free fall more than five feet (1.5 m) nor contact any lower level.


Safety Standards for Fall Protection in the Construction Industry

(OSHA 1.926,501 – Duty to have fall protection)
(a) General. (1) This section sets forth requirements for employers to provide fall protection systems. All fall protection required by this section shall conform to the criteria set forth in 1.926,502 of the subpart.

(b) (1) Unprotected sides and edges. Each employee on a walking/working surface (horizontal and vertical surface) with an unprotected side or edge which is 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above a lower level shall be protected from falling by the use of guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems.

Editors Note: The requirements stated in (b)(1) are similar for: leading edges, hoist area, holes, formwork and reinforcing steel, ramps, runways and other walkways, excavations, dangerous equipment, overhead bricklaying and related work, roofing work on low-slope roofs, steep roofs, precast concrete erection, residential construction and wall openings.


Fall protection system criteria and practices

(OSHA 1.926,502)
(a) General. (1) Fall protection systems required by this part shall comply with the applicable provisions of this section.

(2) Employers shall provide and install all protection systems required by this support for an employee, and shall comply with all other pertinent requirements of this subpart before that employee begins the work that necessitates the fall protection.

(c) Personal fall arrest systems. Personal fall arrest systems and their use shall comply with the provisions set forth below. Effective January 1, 1998, body belts are not acceptable as part of a personal fall arrest system. Nota: The use of a body belt in a positioning device system is acceptable and is regulated under paragraph (e) of this section.

(5) Snaphooks shall be sized to be compatible with the member to which they are connected to prevent unintentional disengagement of the snaphook by depression of the snaphook keeper by the connected member, or shall be a locking type snaphook designed and used to prevent disengagement of the snaphook by the contact of the snaphook keeper by the connected member. Effective January 1, 1998, only locking type snaphooks shall be used.

(15) Anchorages used for attachment of personal fall arrest equipment shall be independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms and capable of supporting at least 5.000 pounds (22,2 kN) per employee attached, or shall be designed, installed, and used as follows:

(i) as part of a complete personal fall arrest system which maintains a safety factor of at least two; and

(ii) (ii) under the supervision of a qualified person.

(16) Personal fall arrest systems, when stopping a fall, shall:

(i) limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 900 pounds (4 kN) when used with a body belt;

(ii) limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1.800 pounds (8 kN) when used with a body harness;

(iii) be rigged such that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet (1.8 m), nor contact any lower level;

(iv) bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3,5 feet (1.07m),; and,

(v) have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet (1.8 m), or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less.

(d) Positioning device system. Positioning device systems and their use shall conform to the following provisions:

(1) Positioning devices shall be rigged such that an employee cannot free fall more than 2 feet (.9 m)

(2) Positioning devices shall be secured to an anchorage capable of supporting at least twice the potential impact load of an employee’s fall or 3.000 pounds (13,3 kN), whichever is greater.


Training requirements

(OSHA 1.926,503)
(a) Training Program.

(1) The employer shall provide a training program for each employee who might be exposed to fall hazards. The program shall enable each employee to recognize the hazards of falling and shall train each employee in the procedures to be followed in order to minimize these hazards.


Fixed Ladders

(OSHA 1.910,27)
(d.5) Ladder safety devices may be used on tower, water tank and chimney ladders over 20 feet in unbroken length in place of cage protection. No landing platform is required. All ladder safety devices, such as those that incorporate life belts, friction brakes, and sliding attachments, must meets the design requirements of the ladders they serve.


Ladder Safety Devices

(ANSI A14.3-1992)
7.1.3 The ladder safety device shall be designed to absorb the impact of a solid object weighing at least 500 pounds in a free fall of 18 inches.

7.1.4 Design and installation of mountings shall not reduce the design safety factors of the fixed ladders.

7.3.1 The safety sleeve shall be of a type which can be operated entirely by the person using the ladder safety device. It shall permit the person using the ladder safety device to ascend or descend without having to continually manipulate the safety sleeve.

7.3.3 The maximum length of the connection between the centerline of the carrier and the point of attachment to the body belt shall not exceed 9 inches.


Powered Platforms For Building Maintenance

(OSHA 1.910,66)
(i) Personal Fall Protection. Employers must provide personal fall arrest systems meeting the requirements outlined. Requirements include the following:

Anchorages to which personal fall arrest equipment is attached shall be capable of supporting at least 5.000 pounds (22.2kN) per employee attached, or shall be designed, installed and used as part of a complete personal fall arrest system which maintains a safety factor of at least two, under the supervision of a qualified person.

Personal fall arrest systems shall, when stopping a fall: 1) limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 900 pounds (4kN) when used with a body belt; and 2) limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1.800 pounds (8kN) when used with a body harness.

Personal fall arrest systems shall be rigged such that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet (1.8 m), nor contact any lower level.

Personal fall arrest systems or components subject to impact loading shall be immediately removed from service and shall not be used again for employee protection unless inspected and determined by a competent person to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.

Before using a personal fall arrest system, and after any component or system is changed, employees shall be trained in accordance with the requirements of paragraph 1.910,66 (i)(1), in the safe use of the system.

Personal fall arrest systems shall be inspected prior to each use for mildew, wear, damage and other deterioration. Defective components shall be removed from service if their strength or function may be adversely affected.


Permit-Required Confined Spaces

(OSHA 1.910,146)
(a) Scope and application. This section contains requirements for practices and procedures to protect employees in general industry from the hazards of entry into permit-required confined spaces.

(k)(3) To facilitate non-entry rescue, retrieval systems or methods shall be used whenever an authorized entrant enters a permit space, unless the retrieval equipment would increase the overall risk of entry or would not contribute to the rescue of the entrant. Retrieval systems shall meet the following requirements: (i) Each authorized entrant shall use a chest or full body harness, with a retrieval line attached at the center of the entrant's back near shoulder level, above the entrant's head or at another point which the employer can establish presents a profile small enough for the successful removal of the entrant. Wristlets may be used in lieu of the chest or full body harness if the employer can demonstrate that the use of a chest or full body harness is infeasible or creates a greater hazard and that the use of wristlets is the safest and most effective alternative. (ii) The other end of the retrieval line shall be attached to a mechanical device or fixed point outside of the permit space in such a manner that rescue can begin as soon as the rescuer becomes aware that rescue is necessary. A mechanical device shall be available to retrieve personnel from vertical type permit spaces more that 5 feet deep.


Fall Arresting Safety Belts and Lanyards for the Construction and Mining Industries

(CSA Z259.1-1976)
1,1 Scope - This standard defines fall and arresting safety belts of the tongue buckle type and lanyards. It may be applied to an assembly consisting of a belt with an attached lanyard, or to a belt alone, or to a lanyard alone.

4.2.6 Length of Lanyard - The lanyard length shall be as short as possible for the work situation involved, while allowing reasonable maneuverability and working convenience.

Notes (2) - When in use, all lanyards, whatever their length should be tied off so that in the event of a fall a person will not drop more than the free fall defined by the applicable legislation.

5.1.3.5.1 - Snap hooks shall be self locking, anti-roll out type...


Fall Arresting Devices, Personnel Lowering Devices, and Life Lines

(CSA Z259.10-M90)
1,1 Scope - This standard covers full body harnesses intended for use as body supports in personal fall arrest systems and in other work situations that involve the risk of falling.

3,1 General Classification - Full body harnesses shall be classified as follows: A - Fall Arresting, D- Controlled Descent, E - Confined Entry and Exit (raising and lowering), L - Ladder Climbing (frontal attachment), P- Work Positioning.

4.2.2.1.1 When tested to destruction, the attachment hardware shall have a minimum breaking strength of 22 kN.

7,2 Special Marking - Special marking shall be required to indicate the only attachment point for a fall arresting application.

 

 

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